Assignment from Tri Djoko Wahjono, Ir., M.Sc.
1. What Career Opportunities Are Available in the Computer Industry?
Career opportunities in the computer industry fall into several areas. In most medium and large businesses and government offices, staff in an IT department is responsible for keeping all computer operations and networks running smoothly. They also determine when and if the organization requires new hardware or software. Workers in the computer equipment field manufacture and distribute computers and computer-related hardware. Employees in the computer software field develop, manufacture, and support a wide range of software. People in the computer service and repair field provide preventive maintenance, component installation, and repair services to customers.
Computer salespeople determine a buyer’s needs and match these needs to the correct hardware and software. Computer educators and corporate trainers teach students and employees how to use software, design and develop systems, write programs, and perform other computer-related activities.
An IT consultant is a professional who draws upon his or her expertise in a specialized area of computers and provides computer services to clients.
2. What Are the Functions of Jobs in an IT Department?
Jobs in an IT department fall into six main areas. Management directs the planning, research, development, evaluation, and integration of technology. System development and programming analyzes, designs, develops, and implements new information technology and maintains and improves existing systems. Technical services evaluates and integrates new technologies, administers the organization’s data resources, and supports the centralized computer operating system and servers. Operations operates the centralized computer equipment and administers the network, including both data and voice commu nications. Training teaches employees how to use components of the information system or answers specific questions. Security develops and enforces policies designed to safeguard data and information from unauthorized users.
3. How Are Trade Schools Different from Colleges?
A trade school, also called a technical school, vocational school, or career college, offers programs primarily in the areas of programming, Web design and development, graphics design, hardware maintenance, networking, personal computer support, and security. Students learn specifi c skills instead of taking a broad range of science and humanities courses, which can result in time savings for students.
4. How Are the Various College Computer-Related Courses of Study Different?
Three broad disciplines in higher education produce the majority of entrylevel employees in the computer industry. Computer information systems (CIS), or information technology (IT), programs teach technical knowledge and skills and focus on how to apply these skills. Computer science (CS) programs stress the theoretical side of programming and operating systems.
Computer engineering (CE) programs teach students how to design and develop the electronic components found in computers and peripheral devices.
5. How Can People Stay Current with Changing Technology?
Four primary ways to stay current with computer technology are professional organizations and personal networks, professional growth and continuing education activities, computer publications and Web sites, and certification. Professional organizations are formed by computer professionals with common interests and a desire to extend their proficiency.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing knowledge and proficiency of information technology.
The Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) is a professional association of programmers, systems analysts, and information processing managers. Maintaining a personal network of job-related contacts can help when seeking change in employment. Professional growth and continuing education include events such as workshops, seminars, conferences, conventions, and trade shows.
The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is one of the larger technology trade shows, bringing together thousands of vendors and more than 110,000 attendees.
Computer industry publications also help to keep people informed about the latest developments in the computer industry.
Another source for information is Web sites that discuss or share opinions, analysis, reviews, or news about technology.
Certification is a process of verifying the technical knowledge of an individual who has demonstrated competence in a particular area. Computing professionals typically obtain a certifi cation by taking and passing an examination.
6. What Are the Benefits of Certification for Employers, Employees, and Vendors?
For employers, certifi cation ensures quality workmanship standards and can help keep their workforce up to date with respect to computers and technology. For employees, certifi cation can enhance careers, provide better standing as industry professionals, and increase salaries. For vendors, certification is a form of industry self-regulation that sets computer professionals’ competence standards and raises the level of expertise and knowledge in the IT industry as a whole.
7. How Can People Prepare for Certification?
Certification training options are available to suit every learning style. Self-study programs help professionals prepare for certification at their own pace and supplement other training methods. Online training classes, which are available on the Internet and on many company intranets, allow students to set their own pace in an interactive environment. Instructor-led training classes are available in a variety of forms, including seminars, boot camps, and academic-style classes. Web resources include the certifi cation sponsor’s Web site and individual Web sites. The certification sponsor’s Web site can contain descriptions of certifi cations with FAQs and links to authorized training and testing centers. Detailed course objectives, training guides, sample test questions, chat rooms, and discussion groups often are included. Individuals also set up Web sites to offer their own views and tips on the testing process.
8. What Are the General Areas of IT Certification?
Certifications usually are classifi ed based on the computer industry area to which they most closely relate: application software, operating systems, programmer/developer, hardware, networking, digital forensics, security, the Internet, and database systems.
9. What Are Some Specific IT Certifications in Each Certification Area?
Application software certifications, sometimes called end-user certifi cations, include Microsoft Certified Application Specialist (MCAS), Microsoft Certifi ed Application Professional (MCAP), Microsoft Certifi ed Desktop Support Technician (MCDST), Adobe Certified Associate, Adobe Certified Expert (ACE), Adobe Certifi ed Instructor (ACI), and IBM Certifi ed Professional for Lotus Software.
Operating system certifications include IBM Certified Specialist, Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS), Novell Certified Linux Professional (CLP), Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE), Red Hat Certified Technician (RHCT), and Sun Certified System Administrator (SCSA). Programmer/developer certifications include Certified Software Development Professional (CSDP ), IBM Certifi ed Solution Developer, Microsoft Certified Professional Developer (MCPD), Sun Certified Enterprise Architect (SCEA), Sun Certified Java Developer (SCJD), Sun Certifi ed Java Programmer (SCJP), and Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer (SCMAD).
Hardware certifications include A+, Dell Certifi ed Systems Expert, and IBM eServer Certifi ed Specialist.
Networking certifications include Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), Cisco Certifi ed Network Professional (CCNP ), Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE), Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA), Network+, Novell Certified Administrator (CNA), Novell Certifi ed Engineer (NCE), and Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA). Digital forensics certifications include Certified Computer Examiner (CCE ), Certifi ed Computer Forensics Examiner (CCFE), Certifi ed Electronic Evidence Collection Specialist (CEECS ), and Certified Information Forensics Investigator (CIFI). Security certifi cations include Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), Security Certified Network Architect (SCNA), Security Certified Network Professional (SCNP ), Security Certified Network Specialist (SCNS), and Systems Security Certifi ed Practitioner (SSCP ). Internet certifications include Certifi ed Internet Webmaster (CIW ) and Certifi ed Web Professional (CWP ). Database certifications include IBM Certified Solutions Expert – DB2, IBM Certified Solutions Expert – Informix, Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), Oracle Certifi ed Professional (OCP ), and Sybase Certified Professional.