Selasa, 14 Januari 2014

Chapter 15 : Computer Careers and Certification

Chapter 15 :  Computer Careers and Certification
Assignment from Tri Djoko Wahjono, Ir., M.Sc.

1.     What Career Opportunities Are Available in the Computer Industry?
Career opportunities in the computer industry fall into several areas. In most medium and large businesses and government offices, staff in an IT department is responsible for keeping all computer operations and networks running smoothly. They also determine when and if the organization requires new hardware or software. Workers in the computer equipment field manufacture and distribute computers and computer-related hardware. Employees in the computer software field develop, manufacture, and support a wide range of software. People in the computer service and repair field provide preventive maintenance, component installation, and repair services to customers.
Computer salespeople determine a buyer’s needs and match these needs to the correct hardware and software. Computer educators and corporate trainers teach students and employees how to use software, design and develop systems, write programs, and perform other computer-related activities.
An IT consultant is a professional who draws upon his or her expertise in a specialized area of computers and provides computer services to clients.

2.     What Are the Functions of Jobs in an IT Department?
Jobs in an IT department fall into six main areas. Management directs the planning, research, development, evaluation, and integration of technology. System development and programming analyzes, designs, develops, and implements new information technology and maintains and improves existing systems. Technical services evaluates and integrates new technologies, administers the organization’s data resources, and supports the centralized computer operating system and servers. Operations operates the centralized computer equipment and administers the network, including both data and voice commu nications. Training teaches employees how to use components of the information system or answers specific questions. Security develops and enforces policies designed to safeguard data and information from unauthorized users.

3.     How Are Trade Schools Different from Colleges?
A trade school, also called a technical school, vocational school, or career college, offers programs primarily in the areas of programming, Web design and development, graphics design, hardware maintenance, networking, personal computer support, and security. Students learn specifi c skills instead of taking a broad range of science and humanities courses, which can result in time savings for students.

4.     How Are the Various College Computer-Related Courses of Study Different?
Three broad disciplines in higher education produce the majority of entrylevel employees in the computer industry. Computer information systems (CIS), or information technology (IT), programs teach technical knowledge and skills and focus on how to apply these skills. Computer science (CS) programs stress the theoretical side of programming and operating systems.
Computer engineering (CE) programs teach students how to design and develop the electronic components found in computers and peripheral devices.

5.     How Can People Stay Current with Changing Technology?
Four primary ways to stay current with computer technology are professional organizations and personal networks, professional growth and continuing education activities, computer publications and Web sites, and certification. Professional organizations are formed by computer professionals with common interests and a desire to extend their proficiency.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing knowledge and proficiency of information technology.
The Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) is a professional association of programmers, systems analysts, and information processing managers. Maintaining a personal network of job-related contacts can help when seeking change in employment. Professional growth and continuing education include events such as workshops, seminars, conferences, conventions, and trade shows.
The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is one of the larger technology trade shows, bringing together thousands of vendors and more than 110,000 attendees.
Computer industry publications also help to keep people informed about the latest developments in the computer industry.
Another source for information is Web sites that discuss or share opinions, analysis, reviews, or news about technology.
Certification is a process of verifying the technical knowledge of an individual who has demonstrated competence in a particular area. Computing professionals typically obtain a certifi cation by taking and passing an examination.

6.     What Are the Benefits of Certification for Employers, Employees, and Vendors?
For employers, certifi cation ensures quality workmanship standards and can help keep their workforce up to date with respect to computers and technology. For employees, certifi cation can enhance careers, provide better standing as industry professionals, and increase salaries. For vendors, certification is a form of industry self-regulation that sets computer professionals’ competence standards and raises the level of expertise and knowledge in the IT industry as a whole.

7.     How Can People Prepare for Certification?
Certification training options are available to suit every learning style. Self-study programs help professionals prepare for certification at their own pace and supplement other training methods. Online training classes, which are available on the Internet and on many company intranets, allow students to set their own pace in an interactive environment. Instructor-led training classes are available in a variety of forms, including seminars, boot camps, and academic-style classes. Web resources include the certifi cation sponsor’s Web site and individual Web sites. The certification sponsor’s Web site can contain descriptions of certifi cations with FAQs and links to authorized training and testing centers. Detailed course objectives, training guides, sample test questions, chat rooms, and discussion groups often are included. Individuals also set up Web sites to offer their own views and tips on the testing process.

8.     What Are the General Areas of IT Certification?
Certifications usually are classifi ed based on the computer industry area to which they most closely relate: application software, operating systems, programmer/developer, hardware, networking, digital forensics, security, the Internet, and database systems.

9.     What Are Some Specific IT Certifications in Each Certification Area?
Application software certifications, sometimes called end-user certifi cations, include Microsoft Certified Application Specialist (MCAS), Microsoft Certifi ed Application Professional (MCAP), Microsoft Certifi ed Desktop Support Technician (MCDST), Adobe Certified Associate, Adobe Certified Expert (ACE), Adobe Certifi ed Instructor (ACI), and IBM Certifi ed Professional for Lotus Software.
Operating system certifications include IBM Certified Specialist, Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS), Novell Certified Linux Professional (CLP), Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE), Red Hat Certified Technician (RHCT), and Sun Certified System Administrator (SCSA). Programmer/developer certifications include Certified Software Development Professional (CSDP ), IBM Certifi ed Solution Developer, Microsoft Certified Professional Developer (MCPD), Sun Certified Enterprise Architect (SCEA), Sun Certified Java Developer (SCJD), Sun Certifi ed Java Programmer (SCJP), and Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer (SCMAD).
Hardware certifications include A+, Dell Certifi ed Systems Expert, and IBM eServer Certifi ed Specialist.
Networking certifications include Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), Cisco Certifi ed Network Professional (CCNP ), Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE), Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA), Network+, Novell Certified Administrator (CNA), Novell Certifi ed Engineer (NCE), and Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA). Digital forensics certifications include Certified Computer Examiner (CCE ), Certifi ed Computer Forensics Examiner (CCFE), Certifi ed Electronic Evidence Collection Specialist (CEECS ), and Certified Information Forensics Investigator (CIFI). Security certifi cations include Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), Security Certified Network Architect (SCNA), Security Certified Network Professional (SCNP ), Security Certified Network Specialist (SCNS), and Systems Security Certifi ed Practitioner (SSCP ). Internet certifications include Certifi ed Internet Webmaster (CIW ) and Certifi ed Web Professional (CWP ). Database certifications include IBM Certified Solutions Expert – DB2, IBM Certified Solutions Expert – Informix, Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), Oracle Certifi ed Professional (OCP ), and Sybase Certified Professional.

Chapter 14 : Enterprise Computing

Chapter 14 : Enterprise Computing
Assignment from Tri Djoko Wahjono, Ir., M.Sc.

1.     What Are the Special Information Requirements of an Enterprise-Sized Corporation?
A large organization, or enterprise, requires special computing solutions because of its size and geographical extent.
Enterprise computing involves the use of computers in networks, such as LANs and WANs, or a series of interconnected networks to satisfy the information needs of an enterprise.
Executive management, which includes the highest management positions in a company, needs information to make strategic decisions.
Middle management, which is responsible for implementing the strategic decisions of executive management, needs information to make tactical decisions.
Operational management, which supervises the production, clerical, and other nonmanagement employees, needs information to make an operational decision that involves day-to-day activities.
Nonmanagement employees also need information to perform their jobs and make decisions.
Managers use business intelligence (BI ), business process management (BPM ), and business process automation (BPA ) tools to focus on information that is important to the decision-making process.

2.     What Information Systems and Software Are Used in the Functional Units of an Enterprise?
An information system is a set of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce information. In an enterprise, the individual functional units have specialized requirements for their information systems. Accounting and fi nancial systems manage transactions and help budget, forecast, and analyze.
A human resources information system (HRIS) manages humanresources functions. An employee relationship management ( ERM ) system automates and manages communications between employees and the business.
Computer-aided design (CAD) assists engineers in product design, and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tests product designs.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) controls production equipment, and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) integrates operations in the manufacturing process.
Material Requirements Planning (MRP) uses software to help monitor and control processes related to production. A quality control system helps an organization maintain or improve the quality of its products or services and typically includes quality control software. A marketing information system serves as a central repository for marketing tasks.
Sales force automation (SFA) software equips salespeople with the electronic tools they need. Distribution systems control inventory, manage and track shipping, and provide information and analysis on warehouse inventory.
Customer interaction management (CIM) software manages day-to-day interactions with customers. Web site management programs collect data to help organizations make informed decisions regarding their Web presence. Security software enables the IT department to limit access to sensitive information.

3.     What Information Systems Are Used throughout an Enterprise?
Some general purpose information systems, called enterprise-wide systems, are used throughout an enterprise.
An office information system (OIS) enables employees to perform tasks using computers and other electronic devices. A transaction processing system (TPS) captures and processes data from dayto- day business activities.
A management information system (MIS) generates accurate, timely, and organized information, so that users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress.
A decision support system (DSS) helps users analyze data and make decisions.
An expert system captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making.
Customer relationship management (CRM) systems manage information about customers. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) provides centralized, integrated software to help manage and coordinate the ongoing activities of an enterprise.
A content management system (CMS) is a combination of databases, software, and procedures that organizes and allows access to various forms of documents and files.

4.     What Are Types of Technologies Used throughout an Enterprise?
Technologies used throughout an enterprise include the following items. A portal is a collection of links, content, and services presented on a Web page and designed to guide users to related to their jobs.
A data warehouse is a huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions. An enterprise’s communications infrastructure consists of hardware (such as wired and wireless network connections and devices, routers, fi rewalls, and servers), software (such as e-mail, instant messaging, VoIP, and server management), and procedures for using and managing hardware and software.
An extranet allows customers or suppliers to access part of an enterprise’s intranet.
Web services allow businesses to create products and B2B interactions over the Internet. Many enterprises employ a serviceoriented architecture (SOA) to allow better communications and services between diverse information systems.
A document management system (DMS) allows for storage and management of a company’s documents.
A workflow application assists in the management and tracking of the activities in a business process from start to finish.
A virtual private network (VPN) provides users with a secure connection to a company’s network server.

5.     What Are Virtualization, Cloud Computing, and Grid Computing?
Virtualization is the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers and storage devices. Server virtualization provides the capability to divide a physical server logically into many virtual servers; storage virtualization provides the capability to create a single logical storage device from many physical storage devices.
Cloud computing is an Internet service that provides computing needs to computer users. Grid computing, which often is used in research environments, combines many servers and/or personal computers on a network to act as one large computer. Cloud and grid computing usually charge a fee based on usage or processing time.

6.     What Are the Computer Hardware Needs and Solutions for an Enterprise?
Enterprise hardware allows large organizations to manage and share information and data using devices geared for maximum availability and effi ciency. Enterprises use a variety of hardware types to meet their large-scale needs.
A RAID (redundant array of independent disks) is a group of integrated disks that duplicates data and information to improve data reliability.
Network attached storage (NAS) is a server that provides storage for users and information systems attached to the network.
A storage area network (SAN) is a highspeed network that provides storage to other servers. An enterprise storage system uses a combination of techniques to consolidate storage so that operations run efficiently.
A blade server, sometimes called an ultradense server, packs a complete computer server on a single card, or blade, rather than a system unit.
A thin client is a small, terminal-like computer that mostly relies on a server for data storage and processing.

7.     What Are High Availability, Scalability, and Interoperability?
The availability of hardware to users is a measure of how often it is online.
A high-availability system continues running and performing at least 99 percent of the time. Scalability is the measure of how well computer hardware, software, or an information system can grow to meet an enterprise’s increasing performance demands.
An information system often must share information, or have interoperability, with other information systems within the enterprise.

8.     Why Is Computer Backup Important, and How Is It Accomplished?
A backup duplicates a fi le or program to protect an enterprise if the original is lost or damaged. A full, or archival, backup copies all of the programs and files in a computer. A differential backup copies only files that have changed since the last full backup. An incremental backup copies only files that have changed since the last full or incremental backup. A selective, or partial, backup allows users to back up specifi c files. Continuous data protection (CDP), or continuous backup, is a backup plan in which data is backed up whenever a change is made. Backup procedures specify a regular plan of copying and storing data and program files.

9.     What Are the Steps in a Disaster Recovery Plan?
A disaster recovery plan describes the steps a company would take to restore computer operations in the event of a disaster. A disaster recovery plan contains four components.
The emergency plan specifies the steps to be taken immediately after a disaster strikes. The backup plan stipulates how a company uses backup files and equipment to resume information processing.
The recovery plan identifies the actions to be taken to restore full information processing operations.

The test plan contains information for simulating disasters and recording an organization’s ability to recover.

Chapter 13 : Programming Languages and Program Development

Chapter 13 : Programming Languages and Program Development
Assignment from Tri Djoko Wahjono, Ir., M.Sc.

1.     How Are Machine Languages Different from Assembly Languages?
A programming language is a set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that enables a programmer, often called a developer, to communicate instructions to a computer. A machine language uses a series of binary digits, or combinations of numbers and letters that represent binary digits, and is the only language a computer directly recognizes. With an assembly language, a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes, which are meaningful abbreviations.

2.     What Is the Purpose of Procedural Programming Languages, and What Are the Features of C and COBOL?
In a procedural language, or thirdgeneration language (3GL), a programmer writes instructions that tell a computer what to accomplish and how to do it. Programmers use English-like words to write instructions, which simplifi es the program development process for the programmer.
A compiler or an interpreter translates the 3GL source program into machine language object code or object program that a computer can execute. Standard procedural languages include C and COBOL.
C is a powerful language that requires professional programming skills and is used for business and scientific problems. It runs on almost any type of computer or operating system.
COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) is a programming language designed for business applications that uses English-like statements that are easy to read, write, and maintain.

3.     What Are the Characteristics of Object-Oriented Programming Languages and Program Development Tools?
Programmers use an object-oriented programming (OOP) language or object-oriented program development tool to implement object-oriented design. A program that provides a user-friendly environment for building programs often is called a program development tool. An object is an item that can contain both data and the procedures that read or manipulate the data. A major benefit of OOP is the ability to reuse and modify existing objects, allowing programmers to create applications faster. Often used in conjunction with OOP, RAD (rapid application development) is a method of developing software in which a programmer writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until the entire program is completed. OOP languages include Java, C11, and C#.
Java uses a just-in-time ( JIT) compiler to convert bytecode into machine-dependent code that is executed immediately. The Microsoft .NET framework, or .NET, allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as stand-alone computers and mobile devices. C11 is an object-oriented extension of the C programming language. C# is based on C11 and has been accepted as a standard for Web applications and XMLbased Web services.
F# is a new programming language that combines the benefits of an object-oriented language with the benefits of a functional language.
Visual Studio is Microsoft’s suite of program development tools that assists programmers in building programs for Windows, Windows Mobile, or operating systems that support .NET. Visual Studio includes the programming languages Visual Basic, Visual C11, and Visual C#. A visual programming language uses a visual or graphical interface, called a visual programming environment (VPE), for creating all source code. Two other program development tools include Delphi and PowerBuilder.

4.     What Are the Uses of Other Programming Languages and Other Program Development Tools?
A 4GL (fourth-generation language) is a nonprocedural language that enables users to access data in a database. A popular 4GL is SQL, a query language for relational databases.
An application generator creates source code or machine code from a specifi cation of the required functionality.
A macro, which is a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task, allows users to automate routine, repetitive tasks.

5.     What Are Web Page Program Development Techniques Such as HTML and XHTML, XML and WML, Scripting Languages, DHTML, Ruby on Rails, Web 2.0 Development, and Web Page Authoring Software?
Web developers use a variety of techniques to create Web pages. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web. XHTML (extensible HTML) is a markup language that includes features of HTML and XML. XML and
WML are popular formats used by Web developers. A scripting language is an interpreted language that programmers use to add dynamic content and interactive elements to Web pages. Popular scripting languages include JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Rexx, Tcl, and VBScript. Dynamic HTML (DHTML) is a type of HTML that allows developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in a Web page.
Ruby on Rails (RoR or Rails) is an open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, databasedriven Web sites. Web 2.0 Web sites often use RSS 2.0 and Ajax. Developers use Web page authoring software to create sophisticated Web pages. Four popular Web page authoring programs are Dreamweaver, Expression Web, Flash, and SharePoint Designer.

6.     How Are Popular Multimedia Authoring Programs Used?
Multimedia authoring software allows developers to combine text, graphics, animation, audio, and video into an interactive presentation. Popular authoring software includes ToolBook and Director.
ToolBook has a graphical user interface and uses an object-oriented approach so that programmers can design multimedia applications using basic objects.
Director has powerful features that allow programmers to create highly interactive multimedia applications.

7.     What Are the Six Steps in the Program Development Life Cycle?
The program development life cycle (PDLC) is a series of steps programmers use to build computer programs. The program development life cycle consists of six steps:
(1) analyze requirements,
(2) design solution,
(3) validate design,
(4) implement design,
(5) test solution, and
(6) document solution.

8.     How Is Structured Design Different from Object-OrientedDesign? In structured design, a programmer typically begins with a general design and moves toward a more detailed design. A programmer starts with the program’s major function, called the main routine or main module, and breaks it down into smaller sections, called subroutines or modules. Structured design results in programs that are reliable and easy to read and maintain, but it does not provide a way to keep the data and the program together and can result in redundant programming code. With object-oriented (OO) design, the programmer packages the data and the program (or procedure) into a single unit, an object. Objects are grouped into classes. A detailed class diagram represents each object, its attributes (data), and its methods (procedures). The programmer translates the methods into program instructions.

9.     What Are the Basic Control Structures and Design Tools Used in Designing Solutions to Programming Problems?
A control structure, also known as a construct, depicts the logical order of program instructions. A sequence control structure shows one or more actions following each other in order. A selection control structure tells the program which action to take, based on a certain condition.
Two types of selection control structures are the if-then-else control structure, which yields one of two possibilities (true or false), and the case control structure, which can yield one of three or more possibilities. The repetition control structure enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met. The two forms of the repetition control structure are: the do-while control structure, which tests a condition at the beginning of the loop, in a process called a pretest, and continues looping as long as a condition is true; and the do-until control structure, which tests a condition at the end of the loop, in a process called a posttest, and continues looping until the condition is true. Some design tools include a program flowchart, or simply flowchart; pseudocode; and the UML (Unifi ed Modeling Language).